James Druckman, Sophie Trawalter, Ivonne Montes, Alexandria Fredendall, Noah Kanter, and Allison Rubenstein
In this related working paper (see "Unbiased?" above), Druckman and his colleagues examine how 651 college-sports medical staff perceive how student-athletes cope with pain. Using vignettes about a student-athlete with a knee injury, the researchers find that a majority of the respondents view African-Americans as having a greater tolerance for pain than white athletes—but only when the African-Americans come from less privileged social backgrounds. The researchers offer this finding as a "starting place for thinking about interventions ... grounded in recognizing that hardship does not make one impervious to physical pain."